One of the root causes of the First Opium War was a trade imbalance between China and Britain. Over two or more centuries, demand had grown in European countries for luxury goods from China, notably tea, porcelain and silk.
In 1890 London held its first international stamp exhibition – it marked the 50th anniversary of the introduction of Universal Penny Postage and the issue of the world’s first adhesive postage stamp, the Penny Black.
This newly discovered Henry III Gold Penny adds but one example to an extremely limited corpus of just eight coins, and the first addition since the accession of the Conte specimen to the Fitzwilliam Museum (Cambridge) in 2001.
This is the story about how a small-time Portuguese fraudster carried out one of the most audacious financial crimes in history and in doing so damaged the
Portuguese economy and almost definitely hastened the arrival of the Salazar dictatorship.
Major General James Cowan was commissioned into The Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) in 1987 and in his early years served in Germany, Northern Ireland, Zimbabwe, Hong Kong, Lesotho and the United Kingdom.